FOVEX 360s/Glossary

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Additional Parameters In practice a real camera deviates from the ideal one. These deviations, systematic errors, are modeled by Additional Parameters. The additional parameters are added to the ideal sensor model in order to compensate for the deviation caused by the systematic errors
Blunder (Image View) Blunder in photogrammetry is a wrongly measured or a wrongly identified/labeled target
Bundle adjustment Given a set of images depicting a number of 3D points from different stations, bundle adjustment can be defined as the problem of simultaneously refining the 3D coordinates describing the scene geometry as well as the Exterior Orientation parameters and the Additional Parameters of the camera(s) employed to acquire the images, according to an optimality criterion involving the corresponding image projections of all points
Camera A camera is a device that records images, either as a still photograph or as moving images known as videos or movies. The term comes from the camera obscure (Latin for "dark chamber"), an early mechanism of projecting images where an entire room functioned as a real-time imaging
Closed-form solution A problem is called to be a closed-form solution which can be solved in terms of functions and mathematical operation from a given generally accepted input set. It implies that the solution does not require initial values for the unknown parameters
Coded Target (PhotoCore)
Coded Target (PhotoCore)

A specially arranged 9 circular targets to be readable by FOVEX 360S. Coded Target is used for automated image orientation for high accuracy applications (metrology) or cases when the measurement subject or the scene have very few natural features:

Datum The datum of a photogrammetric network is defined as basic (minimal) parameters needed to define the network in space. One scale, three orientations and three coordinates are needed to position the network relative to a pre-defined coordinate system. It can be free network (inner constraints) or with control points (over constrained or minimal constraints)
Exterior orientation parameters 6 parameters which locates and orients the camera station is space. It includes 3 coordinates (X0, Y0, Z0) for the camera station location and 3 angles (Omega, Phi and Kappa) for the orientation of the camera station
Frame array camera A frame array camera records the scene in one shot onto a 2D photographic film or photographic plate. Digital frame array cameras use electronics, usually a 2D charge coupled device (CCD) or sometimes a 2D CMOS sensor to capture images which can be transferred or stored in tape or computer memory inside the camera for later playback or processing
FOVEX 3D a software to convert the frame array images into an accurate 3D point cloud
FOVEX 360s a software to convert full spherical 360⁰ panorama images into a 3D colored point cloud
FOVEX PanoMaker a software to generate high resolution 360⁰ panorama image by image stitching.
FOVEX Metric a fully automated camera to capture the frame images for 360⁰ panorama image production.
Labeling The task of assigning a unique identifier to the detected image feature. Image feature can be a Target
Network See photogrammetric network
Photogrammetric network Camera stations, the object points and scale-bar(s) form the photogrammetric network
Photogrammetry Derivation of the shape of an object or surface in 3D by use of photographic images. 3D coordinates of points on an object are determined by measurements made in two or more images taken from different positions. Common points are identified on each image. A line of sight (or ray) can be constructed from the camera location to the point on the object. It is the intersection of these rays (triangulation) that determines the three-dimensional location of the point
Relative orientation The procedure to determine a relative location and a relative angular orientation of one camera station with respect to another camera station
Scale-bar A bar with at least two identified image points in which the distance of the two points are known in 3D. A Scale-bar is used to resolve the scale defect from the Datum of a photogrammetric network
Solution In FOVEX software a Solution is a data structure holding several Projects. This is for the ease of access to the projects of the same objects which have been measured in different time.
Space intersection A procedure to determine the 3D coordinates of the object feature by known Exterior Orientation of more than one camera station
Space resection The procedure to determine the Exterior Orientation parameters of camera stations with known object and image point observations
Target An artificial feature which is placed manually on the object. Targets in photogrammetry are usually circular shape or spherical shape with a high contrast in the images:

Target